But researchers have also found that the ice crystals don’t go away during the warmer summer months—one of the implications of living below the ice. The ice caps are melting and sea levels are rising because of the warming of our planet due to greenhouse Antarctic and Arctic are two regions on Earth. In both regions freezing temperatures, ice, snow and the darkness of the long polar nights make it difficult for plants, animals and humans to survive. Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms. The famous tusk is actually a specialized tooth that protrudes out of the left lip, and in rare cases, a narwhal can have two. Knowledge of the environment that has served generations is being defied by a changing climate. Arctic Cod are critical players in the Arctic food web. This protein is also found in a group of more than 120 fish that live in the Southern Ocean. The Arctic Studies Center seeks to bring its researchers together with community scholars in the collaborative exploration of the cultural heritage represented in these impressive collections. (E. Siddon, UAF, Hidden Ocean 2005, NOAA). Recent sampling efforts and following metagenomics have shed light on the global ocean microbial diversity and function, yet the microbiota of polar regions has not been included in such global analyses. It has the longest migration of all birds, flying from breeding grounds near the North Pole to wintering grounds off Antarctica. Antarctica is the coldest, driest, and windiest of Earth's seven continents, and 98 percent of the continent is covered by ice with no tundra, trees or bushes. Many northern communities have also observed coastal erosion and watched the permafrost—ground that used to be frozen all year—melting and buckling under their homes and roads. Current Arctic sea ice extent Arctic sea ice extent on 9 th August was 5.60 million square km, 1.87 million square km below the 1981-2010 average. The Antarctic is characterized by the blowing of strong winds. As a result, the sea ice that forms in the Arctic is not as mobile as sea ice in the Antarctic. At both poles, tiny animals, called zooplankton, are near the base of the food chain. Like the Antarctic ice fish, they have an antifreeze protein that keeps their blood flowing. Smaller populations live off the eastern coast of Greenland as well. It is land ice that, as it melts, contributes to sea-level rise. They inhabit the "fast ice"—sea ice that is attached to the shore. It is true that there are no bears in Antarctica, but the name comes from a Roman version of the Greek word that is antarktike. In the Arctic Ocean, different species of copepods have different life cycles and eating patterns and they are important sources of food for larger organisms. Difference between Antarctic and Arctic Key Difference: The most obvious difference between Antarctic and Arctic is that Antarctic is located in the southern hemisphere and encompasses the South Pole region, whereas Arctic is located in the northern hemisphere and encompasses the North Pole region. Many different types of ice can be found in the Arctic and Antarctic. In the absence of hemoglobin the gills of ice fish appear white. Orcas stay put in their distinctive ecosystems, and there are different characteristics of the groups (or pods) in various locations. Without phytoplankton and algae, the large marine animals would not have food to eat. Land is being lost, along with animals that provide food for the people living in the Arctic. If fishing on a massive scale expands to the Ross Sea, the dynamic balance of this fragile ecosystem could fall apart. Antarctica is isolated from the rest of the continents by the Circumpolar Current, which swirls clockwise around the landmass. The Iñupiaq developed sophisticated survival skills for understanding animal migrations, weather patterns, ocean currents, and more. Recent studies in the Ross Sea suggest the loud vocalizations may be used to stun prey. Traveling at such depths where there is intense pressure requires a few special adaptations, including a compressible rib cage and streamlined body. Sea ice forms during the winter, more than doubling the size of the Antarctic continent, and then melts in the spring and summer. In keeping with this mandate, the Arctic Studies Center specifically studies northern peoples, exploring history, archaeology, social change and human lifestyles across the circumpolar world. The amount of multi-year ice that remains from year to year has been declining since the 1980s due to warming temperatures, leaving mostly newer, thinner ice on the surface. Come March, the sun rises low in the Arctic horizon, and it won't set until six months later in September. International Scientific Conference "COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTICA", March 2 . Since 1983, Beijing has been a signatory to the Antarctic Treaty which prohibits new territorial claims, other than the seven original ones. The blooms of algae and phytoplankton feed zooplankton and larger predators, which are themselves in turn eaten, and so on up the food chain. Industrial fishing, started in 1996 by New Zealand and now practiced by a dozen nations, is homing in on Antarctic toothfish and krill in the Ross Sea. Icebergs are formed when chunks of glacial ice break off (called calving) from an ice sheet or shelf. They use highly sensitive whiskers on their snouts to locate food. Fish have certain adaptations, like blood with built-in antifreeze, to survive in the Antarctic. During the deepest dives, a narwhal can shut off oxygen flow to unessential organs and instead divert it to where it is needed most. Its formation begins in very cold water surrounded by thicker sea ice or land with a slushy mix of water and ice crystals on the sea surface, called frazil ice. A narwhal is a toothed whale and is closely related to dolphins, porpoises, and orcas. Depending on the season, much or all of the Arctic Ocean is covered by a layer of sea ice, ranging in thickness from a few inches to over six feet, which is always shifting as it floats on the ocean's surface. To study ice, sometimes you have to break it. When sleeping and resting, Weddell seals may remain in the same spot for hours, melting a hollow in the ice underneath them with their own body heat. Not only Polar bears, other terrestrial animals or land animals such as wolves, foxes, hares, reindeer, lemmings and oxen can also be seen in the Arctic region. The Arctic and the Antarctic show differences in their environment, weather, animal and plant life, human activity, and the like. When it comes to children’s stories about arctic and antarctic, there are a variety of titles. The ice has trapped bubbles, salts, and sediments that can help tell the story of how the climate has changed. All orcas are currently considered to be the same species, although there is some thought that they might be different species among the pods in Antarctica, or at least subspecies (pdf). • Arctic is the region on the top-most corner of the globe while Antarctic at the bottom most corner. Few cross these lines for any reason, though today more are doing so under the pretext of defense and security. The Arctic and Antarctic as political arenas > Historically, cooperation and willingness to compromise have charac­terized the political agenda of the polar regions. Here a metagenomic study of seawater samples (n = 60) collected from different depths at 28 … They float with most of their mass below the water, hence the expression “tip of the iceberg”. In the Arctic, some of the sea ice stays throughout the year, called multi-year ice. “Anti-” is commonly a synonym for the opposite in English as well as in Greek. • However, the Antarctic region is qualified by the presence of marine mammals such as penguins, whales and seals. Warmer temperatures also cause sea level to rise and melt the permafrost, or frozen soil. Unicorns may be creatures of the imagination, but narwhals are the real deal. Emperor penguins are the largest of the penguin species and can grow to be 100 pounds. • On the other hand, the Arctic is an ocean with the masses of other lands in the circle. An ice-free Arctic could mean a new trade route—a Northwest Passage connecting Europe to Asia - bypassing both the Panama and Suez canals. Arctic. Antarctica is the earth’s southernmost and fifth-largest continent, dividing the southern waters of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Some areas of the Arctic Ocean, like the Barent Sea north of Scandinavia, are warming so quickly that they are being taken over by Atlantic waters. Early Eskimos, known as Groswater Dorset, occupied the Gulf of St. Lawrence about 2,500 years ago. Next: More arctic and more Antarctica, including Science and survival on Continent 7 and Drifting With the Ice: Life on an Arctic Expedition. ), This graph of the Arctic sea ice coverage shows data from recent years. Male narwhals will sometimes cross their tusks, a behavior called "tusking". The Iñupiaq have lived in the northern section of Alaska for thousands of years. Amidst the penguins and the seals, researchers look at everything from ecosystems underwater to ozone holes in the atmosphere. Every year as the sun disappears for the winter, the surface waters around Antarctica freeze into a slab of ice 10-feet thick, which effectively doubles the size of the continent. Now it's down to just 10 percent and the Arctic may have ice-free summers by the end of the 21st century. Floes are more prone to converge, or bump into each other, and pile up into thick ridges… Also, a belt of floating mass of ice debris called the ice pack surrounds the continent of Antarctica. Antarctica is the coldest of Earth's continents. Antarctica means 'no bears are all mythical'. Polar bears, who rely on sea ice to reach seals for their winter meals, will have less time to reach their food source as the ice declines and breaks up earlier in the season. From this thin layer, the ice becomes thicker and stronger, forming pack ice. In other words, Arctic and Antarctic can be defined as regions related to North and South poles. Since the ice has disappeared the warmer, saltier Atlantic water is able to move northward. Filed Under: Earth Tagged With: Antarctic, Arctic, arctic and antarctic, Continent, Eskimos, Igloos, Penguins, Polar bears, seals, Koshal is a graduate in Language Studies with a Master's Degree in Linguistics. It has indigenous people such as Inuits, Indians and Siberians. This explosion of life supports the entire food web for the whole year—from soft corals on the seafloor to the arctic foxes on the ice. In the northern polar region, the water and ice of the Arctic Ocean are surrounded by land. The indigenous people of the region encircling the North Pole are known by many names—Inuit, Eskimo, Kalaadit. Antarctica is almost entirely covered by ice sheets up to two miles (3 km) thick, which contain roughly 70% of the world’s freshwater. Among the hardiest of the polar creatures, the male emperor penguin is the only animal that remains throughout the winter on the Antarctic continent. • Antarctica is a continent surrounded by the world’s stormiest seas. The Arctic region is also characterized by the presence of trees such as Tundra and flowering plants. It is devoid of towns and living places. China in the Arctic and Antarctic: A Threat? ADVERTISEMENT. When you look at the globe, Antarctic is the region on the bottom-most corner of the world. Antarctica is a continent devoid of human settlement, except for the over 50 research stations built there by 27 different countries. International Scientific Conference "COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTICA", March 2 Sea ice is by definition made from frozen seawater, which gives it different properties than ice made of freshwater. Antarctica is mostly an ice sheet, with the south pole located some 800 miles from the sea. Other than polar bears, there are other marine mammals such as whales, seals and walrus in the artic. Before Antarctica officially acquired its name, the phrase was used to describe places that contrasted the north. TKSST features smarter, more meaningful content than what's usually served up by YouTube's algorithms, and amplifies the creators … A summertime channel carries melted ice to the sea. Yet the two regions are also fundamentally different from one another. Sea ice used to provide protection from powerful ocean waves but now that sea ice is melting, the shoreline is eroding rapidly. In years past, thicker ice was about 40 percent of total ice cover. A dive tender monitors the line connected to ice divers studying creatures living on the under-side of the sea ice. … Animals found on the Antarctic region are calm in nature. In an amazing feat of synchronized swimming, they use a staggered formation so that no krill swims directly in another's wake. The mainstay of the Shishmaref diet is the bearded seal. The Arctic and Antarctic are the two most geographically distant bioregions on earth. And climate scientists predict that before long, there will be no ice left. Orcas travel in pods of up to 40 related individuals. The Arctic and Antarctic may be polar opposites, but in one sense they are connected despite being thousands of kilometres apart. Difference Between Longitude and Latitude, Difference Between Coronavirus and Cold Symptoms, Difference Between Coronavirus and Influenza, Difference Between Coronavirus and Covid 19, Difference Between Works Cited and Works Consulted, Difference Between Stereotype and Archetype, Difference Between Imidazolidinyl Urea and Diazolidinyl Urea, Difference Between Chlamydomonas and Spirogyra, Difference Between Borax and Boric Powder, Difference Between Conditional and Constitutive Knockout. Scientists are just beginning to understand who eats whom in the polar oceans. But, masses of algae can be found in the Antarctic region. Females, young, and immature males live together and adult males live in their own pods. The Arctic is an ocean, covered by a thin layer of perennial sea ice and surrounded by land. and not shivering. In certain regions of the Antarctic, sea ice cover is actually growing. They are also excellent at conserving oxygen—their muscles are built to minimize oxygen use and simultaneously can carry large amounts of oxygen. Since 1955, scientists have been coming to McMurdo primarily in the southern 'summer' months of October to February. Arctic Cod can live in water that is cooler than the freezing point of blood. The male penguins huddle together and keep the egg warm by balancing it on their feet and covering it with their skin. The Arctic is a semi-enclosed ocean, almost completely surrounded by land. 66º33′ are the northern and southern latitudinal lines of the Arctic Circle (66º33′ N) and Antarctic Circle (66º33′ S), respectively. Sea ice differs between the Arctic and Antarctic, primarily because of their different geography. 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