(2014). Nutritional composition of five cultivars of Chinese jujube. 1026, 254–262. Ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions of Ziziphus jujuba prevent acute hypertension induced by angiotensin II in rats. Besides, the extract of jujube possessed the ability to stimulate the activity of ATPase, i.e., Na+-K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase, in erythrocyte, and therefore which was shown to promote bone marrow nuclear proliferation and to inhibit atrophy thymus and spleen in blood deficient animals (Miao et al., 2006; Miao et al., 2010). Neurosci. The photo of dried jujubes collected from Xinjiang province, one of major production regions of jujubes in China. Helmy I.M.F., Wafaa M., Abozied N. Nutritional evaluation of some products from ber fruits. Chemical and biological assessment of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba)-containing herbal decoctions: induction of erythropoietin expression in cultures. Structures and immunological activities of two pectic polysaccharides from the fruits of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. To account for the possible mechanism of HIF signaling in jujube-induced HRE activation, the expression of HIF-1α was determined. Jujube is not only consumed as daily food, but also prescribed as a tonic TCM for blood nourishment in a formulated decoction. These acids possessed notable inhibitory activity on the activated inflammatory cells, and which could be one of the main ingredients in supporting the anti-inflammatory activity of jujube (Yu et al., 2012). Anti-inflammatory activity of seed essential oil from Zizyphus jujuba. Int. Pharm. Nutrients 10, 694. doi:10.3390/nu10060694 | PubMed Abstract, Keywords: Ziziphus jujuba, Rhamnaceae, blood deficiency, bio-active ingredient, food supplement, Citation: Chen J and Tsim KWK (2020) A Review of Edible Jujube, the Ziziphus jujuba Fruit: A Heath Food Supplement for Anemia Prevalence. The activation by two folds was confirmed under application of jujube extract at 3.0 mg/ml (Chen J. et al., 2016). This result suggests the involvement of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling in jujube-treated cells. 149, 1008–1018. Specific targets supporting the clinical usage of jujube in hematopoietic functions however remain unclear. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2019.01.027 | PubMed Abstract, Steinkamp-Fenske, K., Bollinger, L., Xu, H., Yao, Y., Horke, S., and Förstermann, U. Alternat. Food Chem. - possible role in the treatment of asthma. Front. Clin. The pre-incubation of jujube extract (30, 100, and 300 mg/ml) for 5 min at 37°C in platelet-rich plasma was reported to suppress collagen (2 mg/ml)-, thrombin (0.4 U/ml)-, and arachidonic acid (100 mM)-induced aggregation of platelets (Seo et al., 2013). In support of this notion, the applied jujube extract at concentrations of 0.75–3 mg/ml in cultured Hep3B cells for 48 h increased the expression of EPO transcription, and the increase was shown to be in a dose-dependent manner (Chen et al., 2014b). Reciprocal regulation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase and NADPH oxidase by betulinic acid in human endothelial cells. (i) DNA damage measured as Tail DNA % in human lymphocytes exposed to H, DNA damage measured as Tail DNA % induced by betulinic acid (BA), Biochemical stress markers in liver cells of mice primed with betulinic acid (BA) and treated with MMS: MDA (A) BA, (B) BA followed by MMS treatment; H. Antioxidant enzymes in liver cells of mice primed with betulinic acid (BA) and treated with MMS: Catalase activity – (A) BA, (B) BA followed by MMS treatment; Guaiacol peroxidase activity – (C) BA, (D) BA followed by MMS treatment; Total glutathione content – (C) BA, (D) BA followed by MMS treatment. These findings indicate the maturity of jujube should therefore be taken into consideration when it is being prepared for health food supplements. Triterpenic acids have been isolated and purified from jujube, including ceanothenic acid, zizyberanal acid, zizyberenalic acid, zizyberanalic acid, and ceanothic acid (Figures 3C) (Yu et al., 2012). J Agric Food Chem. Oncol. Physiol. It is hardy to zone (UK) 6. FIGURE 1. (2007). doi:10.1021/jf4007032 | PubMed Abstract, Gao, Q. H., Wu, C. S., Yu, J. G., Wang, M., Ma, Y. J., and Li, C.-L. (2012). Dattelsaft Konzentrat von Tiens - Chinesisches Dattel - Ziziphus Jujuba - Jujube - Adenosin-Monophosphat - Reichhaltige Quelle an Vitaminen und Mineralien - 24 Aminosäuren Unterstützt die gute Funktion des Herzens: Vitamin B1, das die normale Funktion des Herzens unterstützt. In parallel, the extract of jujube significantly increased serum iron, iron saturation, total iron binding capacity in anemia rats, indicating the supply of circulation iron for erythropoiesis. Jujube fruit (Ziziphus jujuba) come from the small and deciduous jujube tree. J. Experi. Flavonoids are common chemical presented in a wide range of plants. Erythropoiesis is considered to play critical roles in hematopoiesis, by which production of red blood cells (RBCs) is occurred. The results showed that jujube extract attenuated blood pressure and mean arterial pressure in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats (Mohebbati et al., 2018). Hematol. 2012;10:37–46. that belongs to Rhamnaceae family. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078622 | PubMed Abstract. The fractions of ZSP3 and ZSP4 at various concentrations (30–200 μg/ml) were applied onto peritoneal macrophages, and the cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay. Jujube promotes erythropoiesis via activation of hypoxia inducible factor-induced erythropoietin, possesses potential capacity in recycling heme iron during erythrophagocytosis, exhibits bidirectional role in regulating immune response under different conditions, contains numerous minerals including iron. doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(00cxv)00842-5, Chi, Y. F., and Zhang, Z. The photo of Z. jujuba fruits. Thus, the disorders in iron recycling can result in anemia (Batchelor et al., 2020). doi:10.1021/jf5041564 | PubMed Abstract, Chen, J., Du, C. Y., Lam, K. Y., Zhang, W. L., Lam, C. T., Yan, A. L., et al. Still in the theme of health benefits, now we will talk about health benefits of jujube fruit. Chinese date fruits-Ziziphus jujuba fruits – kaufen Sie dieses Foto und finden Sie ähnliche Bilder auf Adobe Stock (2017). Protective effect of extract of jujubae fructus on iron deficiency anemia in rats. Int. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2017.10.013 | PubMed Abstract, Pahuja, M., Mehla, J., Reeta, K. H., Joshi, S., and Gupta, Y. K. (2011). In parallel, the anti-inflammatory property of jujube was shown in colitis-associated colon cancer mice (Periasamy et al., 2020). Sci. Nat. Nrf2 directly binds to anti-oxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter region of HO-1 gene resulting in the transcription. Jujube has a promising source of flavonoids, polysaccharides, terpenoids, saponins, nucleotides and others (Figure 2). Biophys. 10, 549–557. Food Chem. Moreover, the quercetin-treated HepG2 cells showed a stimulation of EPO mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner (Nishimura et al., 2017). Blood 116, 6054–6062. Food Sci. (2014) reported that CREB-binding protein was required for HIF-α acetylation and efficient HIF-mediated EPO production during hypoxic stress. In human endothelial cells treated with betulinic acid, the endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production were robustly increased (Steinkamp-Fenske et al., 2007). Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has a vital role in metabolizing heme to biliverdin, carbon monoxide and free iron. Moreover, the intake of jujube extract (100–400 mg/kg) was found to increase the level of EPO in blood circulation, which suggested that jujube might promote RBC level through up regulation of EPO production. Nephrol. Med. Human lymphocytes were incubated with the Ziziphus fruit ethanol extracts (ZFE) or betulinic acid (BA) followed by an exposure to either 50 μM of MMS or 250 μM of H2O2. Supporting this notion in the pHRE-Luc (the DNA promoter construct of EPO gene, hypoxia response element) transfected cultured HEKT293T cells, the application of kaempferol at 10 μM for 24 h could significantly induce the transcriptional activity of pHRE-Luc with 127% of increase, as compared to control group (Xu et al., 2018). Clinically, several controlled trials have revealed that jujube is a safe and effective herb for human consumption (Naftali et al., 2008; Ebrahimimd et al., 2011; Sabzghabaee et al., 2013); however, there is currently no human study on the blood deficiency effects. Technol. Jujube is typically a small shrub or tree with small yellowish-green petals and drupe fruits that are about the size of a date and range from brown to purplish-black. A polysaccharide isolated from Cordyceps sinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine, protects PC12 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury. Jian-Pi-Yi-Shen improved the hematological parameters and stimulated EPO production (Chen et al., 2019). The one-inch-long green fruits ripen to dark red and finally black. J. Chin. (2011). Protective effects of long-term administration of Ziziphus jujuba fruit extract on cardiovascular responses in L-NAME hypertensive rats. J. Clin. Investigating the efficacy of Zizyphus jujuba on neonatal jaundice. Pharmacol. Flavonoids from jujube have been found to stimulate the expression of erythropoietin (EPO), a hormone stimulating blood production (Zheng et al., 2011), and therefore we speculated that jujube flavonoid might be one of the active compounds that possessed the ability to induce the expression of EPO. It can be taken into decoction for daily consumption, or which can be taken together with other foods to prepare delicious soup. Stimulation of erythropoietin gene transcription during hypoxia and cobalt exposure. Natural phytochemicals and probiotics as bioactive ingredients for functional foods: extraction, biochemistry and protected-delivery technologies. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.02.004 | PubMed Abstract, Ascensao, J. L., Bilgrami, S., and Zanjani, E. D. (1991). 4
It is well accepted that increasing cAMP level can stimulate protein kinase A and, subsequently, which phosphorylates CREB (Argyrousi et al., 2020). The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. 42, 380–384. 260, 28–36. Cell biology; Toxicology. (2015). Sie stammt aus Nord- und Nordostchina und wird heute weltweit kultiviert. Effect of Ziziphus jujube fruit infusion on lipid profiles, glycaemic index and antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized controlled clinical trial. In good agreement with this finding, Yang et al. Polym. Therefore, HO-1, biliverdin reductase and ferropotin are considered as the main target enzymes in determining the iron recycling in macrophages. (2016) reported that application of GZT extract in cultured RAW264.7 macrophages showed anti-inflammatory activity, which involved in blocking ERK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Das Uhrenarmband ist angenehm zu tragen und langlebig zu bedienen. Food Chem. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Thirugnanasampandan R, Ramya G, Bhuvaneswari G, Aravindh S, Vaishnavi S, Gogulramnath M. J Complement Integr Med. Zizyphus jujuba and its active component jujuboside B inhibit platelet aggregation. Toxicol. (2006). 581, 5087–5093. A Chinese herbal decoction, Danggui Buxue Tang, activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase in cultured T-lymphocytes. The potential active ingredients relating to the activities of jujube are summarized. Additional of natural herbal extracts to dairy products has increasingly popular because of their health benefits. Metab. Food Chem. 49, 255–259. In addition, the combination of catalpol and puerarin with doses of 65.4 and 32.7 mg/kg, respectively, enhanced the expressions of EPO and EPO receptor in ischemic/reperfusion rats (Xue et al., 2016). Process Biochem. Comparison of structural characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) Antimelancholic medicine prepared from jujube cAMP materials. Apart from the medicinal application, fresh immature jujubes are widely consumed as fruits, and the dried fruits are also eaten as a snack, or with tea. Massive EPO-producing cells are identified in the renal interstitium. Ziziphus jujuba is a deciduous Tree growing to 10 m (32ft) by 7 m (23ft) at a fast rate. In practice of herbal cuisine, jujube is one of common materials that is considered as boosting or nourishing type of food. Results suggest that ZFE (250, 500, 1000 μg/ml) and BA (10, 20, 40 μg/ml) were able to inhibit the DNA damaging effect caused by MMS and H2O2 indicative of their protection against the genotoxin. Mice of blood deficiency model were induced by releasing blood and injection of cyclophosphamide. Rapid determination of amino acids in fruits of Ziziphus jujuba by hydrophilic interaction ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry. J. doi:10.1021/jf405093f | PubMed Abstract, Chen, J., Lam, C. T., Li, Z., Yao, P., Lin, H., Dong, T. T. X., et al. Med. In vivo antigenotoxic activity of Diplotaxis tenuifolia against cyclophosphamide-induced DNA damage: relevance of modulation of hepatic ABC efflux transporters. The jujube is a drupe or stone fruit. J. Biol. Food Res. 29,90 € 29,90 € Sparen Sie 20% an der Kasse. 67, 1284–1291. Jujube is usually called red date or Chinese date, which is the fruit of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2018.03.002 | PubMed Abstract, Argyrousi, E. K., Heckman, P., and Prickaerts, J. doi: 10.1515/jbcpp-2019-0172. -. 2007;103:454–460. The content of benefit ingredients within jujube could be changed robustly between fresh jujubes and dried ones (Guo et al., 2015; USDA, 2012; Chen et al., 2013). Jujube-containing herbal decoctions are routinely recorded in Jingui Yaolue by Zhang Zhongjing, which are prescribed to address various ailments. Food Chem. Mitsuhashi, Y., Furusawa, Y., Aradate, T., Zhao, Q. L., Moniruzzaman, R., and Kanamori, M. (2017). The hematopoietic functions of jujube. J. Evid. JC: acquisition of data, drafting the manuscript. Flavonoids from Radix Astragali induce the expression of erythropoietin in cultured cells: a signaling mediated via the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. doi:10.1002/ptr.4809 | PubMed Abstract, Shi, X. Q., Yue, S. J., Tang, Y. P., Chen, Y. Y., Zhou, G. S., and Zhang, J. According to the aforesaid cellular and animal findings, jujube has a promising potential in developing medicinal food and supplement for prevention against anemia, cancer, inflammation and iron/vitamin deficiency. Fractions named as ZSP1, ZSP2, ZSP3 and ZSP4 with weight ratio of 29.3:17.6:37.2:15.9 have been purified from jujube (Li et al., 2011). At present, a variety of flavonoids were isolated and identified in jujube (Cheng et al., 2000; Pawlowska et al., 2009; Choi et al., 2011; Gao et al., 2013). Xu, Y., Tao, Z., Jin, Y., Yuan, Y., Dong, T., and Tsim, K. W. K. (2018). Moreover, the extract of jujube markedly inhibited the protein expressions of IL-6, NF-κB, JAK1, and STAT3 in colon tissues, as compared with model group. 59, 1697–1704. Bar: 1 cm. The treatment with jujube extract slightly inhibited NF-κB activity. Effect of Fructus Jujubae polysaccharide on the hematopoietic function in mice model of both qi and blood deficiencies. Med. Yup. In particular, the application of jujube polysaccharide at various concentrations (10–100 μg/ml) onto cultured lymphocytes for 3 days demonstrated an enlarging cell volume and an increasing cell number (Zhao et al., 2008). 2011;137:1521–1527. 8, 5050–5051. BMC Compl. Hence, possible signaling pathways involved in jujube polysaccharide-treated in vitro or in vivo models are needed for further investigation. Altern Ther Health Med. As illustrated in cell and animal models, the application of jujube extract possessed beneficial effects, including regulation of erythropoiesis via activation of hypoxia inducible factor-induced erythropoietin, potential capacity in recycling heme iron during erythrophagocytosis and bi-directional regulation of immune response. From the cradle to the grave: the role of macrophages in erythropoiesis and erythrophagocytosis. In animal model, angiotensin II was intravenously injected into rats to induce acute hypertension, which characterized by cardiovascular parameters, i.e., notably elevated systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure, as well as the decline of heart rate (HR) compared with control group. In addition, jujube was reported to contain numerous minerals, e.g., iron and vitamin. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Do you know something about it? doi:10.1016/j.fct.2009.11.045 | PubMed Abstract, Almeer, R. S., Mahmoud, S. M., Amin, H. K., and Abdel, M. A. The extract of Ziziphus jujuba fruit (jujube) induces expression of erythropoietin via hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in cultured Hep3B cells. 30, 267–271. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.08.016, Li, J., Shan, L., Liu, Y., Fan, L., and Ai, L. (2011). J. Agric. 61, 7315–7324. Besides, jujube cAMP has been found to possess anti-melancholic effect in animal model of depression (Chi and Zhang, 2009).