(i) DNA damage measured as Tail DNA % in human lymphocytes exposed…, DNA damage measured as Tail DNA % induced by betulinic acid (BA) in…, Biochemical stress markers in liver cells of mice primed with betulinic acid (BA)…, Antioxidant enzymes in liver cells of mice primed with betulinic acid (BA) and…, NLM Thus, the function of jujube in promoting EPO expression in renal anemia patients was in line to that of Jian-Pi-Yi-Shen (Chen et al., 2019). Flavonoids from jujube have been found to stimulate the expression of erythropoietin (EPO), a hormone stimulating blood production (Zheng et al., 2011), and therefore we speculated that jujube flavonoid might be one of the active compounds that possessed the ability to induce the expression of EPO. Moreover, the quercetin-treated HepG2 cells showed a stimulation of EPO mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner (Nishimura et al., 2017).
Cultured Hep3B cells were transfected with HRE promoter fragment (i.e., pHRE-Luc), and then jujube water extract was applied onto the transfected cells for 24 h, and which dose-dependently activated the transcriptional activity of HRE (Chen et al., 2014b). Med. Int. Nutrients 10, 694. doi:10.3390/nu10060694 | PubMed Abstract, Keywords: Ziziphus jujuba, Rhamnaceae, blood deficiency, bio-active ingredient, food supplement, Citation: Chen J and Tsim KWK (2020) A Review of Edible Jujube, the Ziziphus jujuba Fruit: A Heath Food Supplement for Anemia Prevalence. Flavonoids from Ziziphus jujuba Mill var. Vasiljevic JD, Zivkovic LP, Cabarkapa AM, Bajic VP, Djelic NJ, Spremo-Potparevic BM. J. The rats were treated with hydroalcoholic extracts of jujube at various concentrations (from 100 to 400 mg/kg) for four weeks, and then L-NAME (10 mg/kg) was injected intravenously into rats to induce hypertension. These studies however need further confirmation as no observation has been found in a physiology model of iron recycling. Therefore, HO-1, biliverdin reductase and ferropotin are considered as the main target enzymes in determining the iron recycling in macrophages. Nephrol. The jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) doi:10.1080/01635581.2019.1615515 | PubMed Abstract, Post, D. E., and Van Meir, E. G. (2001). Biology and clinical applications. 16, 390. doi:10.1186/s12906-016-1366-8 | PubMed Abstract, Yoon, J. I., Al-Reza, S. M., and Kang, S. C. (2010). (2007). Food Chem. About 0.48 mg iron and 69 mg vitamin C per 100 g of fresh fruit were reported (Li et al., 2007; USDA, 2012). J. This assumption requires further studies as to confirm the ability of jujube to prevent/treat renal anemia through regulation of EPO production. Jujuboside B from jujube markedly inhibited platelet aggregation, and which was considered as one of the active ingredients in processing anti-platelet effect (Seo et al., 2013). 65, 514–518. 2013 Apr 10;61(14):3351-63. doi: 10.1021/jf4007032. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.05.147 | PubMed Abstract, Sabzghabaee, A. M., Khayam, I., Kelishadi, R., Ghannadi, A., Soltani, R., and Badri, S. (2013). | Int. Clinically, blood deficiency is usually encountered in women due to the loss of menstrual blood, or in patient who has lost blood or suffered from chronic malnutrition. Macromol. According to the theory of TCM, blood deficiency shows similarity to anemia of individual in western medicine (Shi et al., 2019). The polysaccharides extracted from jujube usually consist of five monosaccharides, i.e., galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, glucose and xylose (Zhao et al., 2008) (Figures 3B). In consistent with this, Chen et al. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media. Health beneficial properties of jujube. In addition, GZT stimulated the transcriptional activity of HRE in a dose-dependent manner (Lam et al., 2016). Over 400 cultivars have been selected. It is hardy to zone (UK) 6. doi:10.3109/13880209.2013.821665 | PubMed Abstract, Batchelor, E. K., Kapitsinou, P., Pergola, P. E., Kovesdy, C. P., and Jalal, D. I. Jujube promotes learning and memory in a rat model by increasing estrogen levels in the blood and nitric oxide and acetylcholine levels in the brain. In parallel, puerarin was identified in the seeds of jujube (Cheng et al., 2000). Nat. (2004). Rehabil. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.10.104 | PubMed Abstract, Gao, Q. H., Wu, C. S., and Wang, M. (2013). Trends Mol. fruit. Chemical structures for compounds in jujube possessing potential hematopoietic activity. In southern part of India, jujube is mixed with tamarind, jaggery, salt and chilies, and then pounded into cakes. Metab. Fractions named as ZSP1, ZSP2, ZSP3 and ZSP4 with weight ratio of 29.3:17.6:37.2:15.9 have been purified from jujube (Li et al., 2011). 63, 739–744. doi:10.1002/ptr.4809 | PubMed Abstract, Shi, X. Q., Yue, S. J., Tang, Y. P., Chen, Y. Y., Zhou, G. S., and Zhang, J. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error, HPLC-DAD chromatogram and quantification of betulinic acid (BA) in, A. Xu, Y.-L., Miao, M.-S., Sun, Y.-H., and Miao, Y.-Y. (2010). Food Res. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Active ingredients of jujube. This finding indicates the activation of innate immune system in jujube-treated cells. Zizyphus is a shrub or small tree. Hematol. (i) DNA damage measured as Tail DNA % in human lymphocytes exposed to MMS (50 μM) in combination with, A. Nrf2-Keap1 defines a physiologically important stress response mechanism. These results indicate that CREB-binding protein/HIF signaling can be involved in jujube-induced EPO production. doi:10.1002/ptr.5796, Yoo, S. R., Kim, Y., Lee, M. Y., Kim, O. S., Seo, C. S., Shin, H.-K., et al. FIGURE 2. In vivo antigenotoxic activity of Diplotaxis tenuifolia against cyclophosphamide-induced DNA damage: relevance of modulation of hepatic ABC efflux transporters. Front. 260, 28–36. View all
Das Uhrenarmband ist angenehm zu tragen und langlebig zu bedienen. Zizyphus jujuba and its active component jujuboside B inhibit platelet aggregation. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2017.10.013 | PubMed Abstract, Pahuja, M., Mehla, J., Reeta, K. H., Joshi, S., and Gupta, Y. K. (2011). Ziziphus Jujuba is a nutritious fruit that has no calories that grow in a shrub with tiny greenish-yellow flowers. Macromol. 80, 1622–1627. USDA nutrient database for standard reference. To account for the possible mechanism of HIF signaling in jujube-induced HRE activation, the expression of HIF-1α was determined. Dietary chokeberry and dried jujube fruit attenuates high-fat and high-fructose diet-induced dyslipidemia and insulin resistance via activation of the IRS-1/PI3K/Akt pathway in C57BL/6 J mice. doi:10.3892/etm.2013.1063 | PubMed Abstract, Li, J., Ding, S., and Ding, X. doi:10.1016/j.molmed.2004.09.003 | PubMed Abstract, Naftali, T., Feingelernt, H., Lesin, Y., Rauchwarger, A., and Konikoff, F. M. (2008). Jujube extract at different concentration (0–3.0 mg/ml) was applied onto cultured macrophages for 24 h. The applied jujube extract stimulated the mRNA expressions of HO-1, biliverdin reductase A and B, and ferropotin in dose-dependent manners, giving the highest response by ∼2.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 folds, respectively (Chen J. et al., 2016). (2000). The photo of dried jujubes collected from Xinjiang province, one of major production regions of jujubes in China. 23, 706–710. (2016) reported that the intake of jujube extract showed an improvement in iron deficiency anemia rats. Biophys. The results showed that dietary jujube intake could attenuate inflammation in model mice. Another animal study showed that jujube essential oil could inhibit the inflammatory responses of skin (Al-Reza et al., 2010). Against the inflammatory irritant action of Euphorbia plants. (2016). Alternative Med. The standardized extract of Ziziphus jujuba fruit (jujube) regulates pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in cultured murine macrophages: suppression of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated NF-kappaB activity. Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Environ. Eur. Investigating the efficacy of Zizyphus jujuba on neonatal jaundice. TABLE 1. The photo of Z. jujuba fruits. (2009). In this review, the beneficial effects of jujubes on the hematopoietic functions are summarized and discussed. (2019) demonstrated a new goat dairy product adding of jujube pulp as ingredients with satisfactory nutritional quality and sensory property, which provided alternative approach in developing a unique goat dairy product with high nutritional properties. (2020). Technol. Sinha S., Biswas D., Mukherjee A. Antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities of palmarosa and citronella essential oils. Lyophilized powder of catalpol and puerarin protects neurovascular unit from stroke. Physiol. doi:10.1142/S0192415X09007089, Lam, C., Chan, P. H., Lee, P., Lau, K. M., Kong, A., and Gong, A. G. W. (2016). Red dots indicate iron, and yellow dots indicate cytokine. Jujube is not only consumed as daily food, but also prescribed as a tonic TCM for blood nourishment in a formulated decoction. This has led to our investigation to find out if the fruit extract showed an ability to decrease the frequency of DNA damage (antigenotoxicity) induced by two known genotoxins namely an alkylating agent methyl methane sulphonate (MMS) and a reactive oxygen species (ROS) inducer hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Seo, E. J., Lee, S. Y., Kang, S. S., and Jung, Y. S. (2013). Food Chem. A., Legua, P., and Amorós, A. Triterpenic acids have been isolated and purified from jujube, including ceanothenic acid, zizyberanal acid, zizyberenalic acid, zizyberanalic acid, and ceanothic acid (Figures 3C) (Yu et al., 2012). Chemical and biological assessment of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba)-containing herbal decoctions: induction of erythropoietin expression in cultures. Int. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.08.016, Li, J., Shan, L., Liu, Y., Fan, L., and Ai, L. (2011). J. Clin. In addition, there are no known toxicity and drug interaction being reported clinically for consumption of jujube. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. (2019). Med. The excessive induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, i.e., IL-1β and IL-6, also contributes to chronic inflammation. Erythrophagocytosis is a process, where the senescent RBCs are phagocytosed by macrophage (Klei et al., 2017). In addition, the combination of catalpol and puerarin with doses of 65.4 and 32.7 mg/kg, respectively, enhanced the expressions of EPO and EPO receptor in ischemic/reperfusion rats (Xue et al., 2016). The study revealed that jujube extract markedly declined granuloma tissue formation, as compared with model rat. 149, 1008–1018. Nutr Cancer 72, 120–132. Clin. Miao, M., Miao, Y., and Fang, X. J. Chin. (* Significant with respect to MMS. The arrow in red indicates the targets for jujube action. In support of this finding, the consumption of mixed jujube, almond and rice in healthy human showed a significantly lower glucose level, as compared to those with rice as reference (Zhu et al., 2018). Hair growth promoting effect of Zizyphus jujuba essential oil. GZT belongs to exterior-releasing formula that is able to dispel pathogenic factors from superficies of body, and the effect of jujube within this formula is believed to tonify “Qi” and to replenish “Blood” of the body resulting from corresponding pathological changes. Protective effects of long-term administration of Ziziphus jujuba fruit extract on cardiovascular responses in L-NAME hypertensive rats. Therefore, jujube flavonoid can induce EPO expression, probably, through HIF-α protein accumulation. Role of cyclic nucleotides and their downstream signaling cascades in memory function: being at the right time at the right spot. (2016). Additional in vivo experiments were carried since BA is an important phytochemical detected in ample amounts in the fruit extract. Characterization of water soluble polysaccharides from organs of Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Spinosa. It may possess anxiety -reducing and sedative properties. Effects of oleamide on choline acetyltransferase and cognitive activities. Exp. These findings indicate the maturity of jujube should therefore be taken into consideration when it is being prepared for health food supplements. (2020). März 2012. 277, 238–245. In the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages, the pre-treatment with jujube water extract repressed the expressions of IL-1β and IL-6 (Chen et al., 2014a). Jujube is typically a small shrub or tree with small yellowish-green petals and drupe fruits that are about the size of a date and range from brown to purplish-black. Hence, possible signaling pathways involved in jujube polysaccharide-treated in vitro or in vivo models are needed for further investigation. Food Chem. Feng et al. 2011;137:1521–1527. Blood 116, 6054–6062. It is well accepted that increasing cAMP level can stimulate protein kinase A and, subsequently, which phosphorylates CREB (Argyrousi et al., 2020). Mutagen. (2011). J. Biol. Although the common names are red date and Korean date, the scientific classification of jujube is Ziziphus jujuba. In addition, a triple-masked randomized controlled clinical trial revealed that jujube was well tolerated in general, and which might possess potential beneficial roles on serum lipid profile (Sabzghabaee et al., 2013). Food Chem. In ibuprofen-induced nephrotoxicity rats, the intake of jujube extract (500 mg/kg) improved kidney function by declining the levels of creatinine and urea, and this treatment could prevent histopathological damages of kidney (Awad et al., 2014). (2020). Phytother Res. It is in flower from April to May, and the seeds ripen in October. 26, 42–46. 49, 255–259. 31, 456–468. These two fractions were found to dose-dependently induce proliferation of spleen lymphocyte, having the highest response under the treatment of jujube polysaccharide at 200 μg/ml. 2017 Mar 9;14(2):/j/jcim.2017.14.issue-2/jcim-2016-0009/jcim-2016-0009.xml. Therefore taking into account the antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties, the consumption of the Ziziphus fruit should be more popularized worldwide. In this work we hypothesized that this natural product rich in polyphenols might protect humans against DNA damage and its consequences. doi:10.1016/s0024-3205(03)00652-0, Lim, T. K. (2013). 67, 1284–1291. Dietary Ziziphus jujuba fruit attenuates colitis-associated tumorigenesis: a pivotal role of the NF-kappaB/IL-6/JAK1/STAT3 pathway. Food Chem. 20, 1018–1026. Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). NF-κB is one of main transcription factors that has vital role in controlling pro-inflammatory cytokine production (Du et al., 2013). (2016). doi:10.1097/00043426-199124000-00002PubMed Abstract, Awad, D. S., Ali, R. M., Mhaidat, N. M., and Shotar, A. M. (2014). In another investigation, the activities of dietary jujube on the levels of RBC, hemoglobin and hematocrit were analyzed in colitis-associated colon cancer mice. Mater. Food Chem. There are two major domesticated jujubes, Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. doi:10.1002/ptr.5526, Chen, M., Wu, J., Shi, S., Chen, Y., Wang, H., Fan, H., et al. Jujube extract stimulated the expression of HIF-1α mRNA, and the induced expression was demonstrated to be in a dose-dependent manner, having the highest effect by ∼80% of increase. The effect of jujube extract on anti-complementary activity was also reported. Jujube is a general name of Ziziphus jujuba.In other name jujube called as r ed date palm, Chinese date palm, Korean date palm, or Indian date palm. Food Chem. Planta Med. JC and KT: Concept, design, literature search and manuscript review. 40, 3607–3613. (2014c) found that jujube extract (2 mg/ml) induced CREB phosphorylation in cultured cells, and this effect was fully blocked by H89, a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A inhibitor. Pharmacol. Med. In parallel, similar results on EPO expression were observed in other two herbal decoctions containing jujube, i.e., Neibu Dangguijianzhong written by Sun Simiao in Tang Dynasty (652 AD) and Zao Tang recorded in Official Bureau of Physicans in Sung Dynasty (1,078–1,085 AD) (Lam et al., 2016). Neurosci. Gene Ther. Co-treatment with ethyl acetate fraction (150 and 300 mg/kg), or aqueous fraction (150 and 300 mg/kg), of jujube extract restored the cardiovascular parameters (Kamkar-Del et al., 2020). Based on the aforesaid experimental results, the beneficial role of jujube in treating blood deficiency could therefore be closely related to the EPO-mediated erythropoiesis (Figure 4). It may possess anxiety -reducing and sedative properties. Fazio, A., La Torre, C., Caroleo, M. C., Caputo, P., Plastina, P., and Cione, E. (2020). doi:10.1182/blood-2010-03-272138 | PubMed Abstract, Kubota, H., Morii, R., Kojima-Yuasa, A., Huang, X., Yano, Y., and Matsui-Yuasa, I. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.06.110 | PubMed Abstract, Chen, J., Li, Z., Maiwulanjiang, M., Zhang, W. L., Zhan, J. Y., Lam, C. T. W., et al. In addition, the possible active ingredients within jujube responsible for these functions are elucidated. J. Clin. 27, 829–834. Ziziphus Jujuba (Chinese/Korean Date, Jujube) is a plant which bears fruits and seeds that are used for medicinal purposes in Traditional Chinese Medicine. In line with this, the applied jujube extract at 100–500 μg/ml inhibited nitric oxide production and splenocyte proliferation on the inflammatory activated cells (Yu et al., 2012). J. Chromatogr. von Adeela Amjad, Qasim Raza, et al. doi:10.1159/000190975 | PubMed Abstract, Ninave, P. B., and Patil, S. D. (2019). The right time at the right time at the right time at the spot... Jujube Ziziphus jujuba Mill., Bader, A. N. ( 2010 ) ) is occurred of... Iron and vitamin color is often a showy yellow, but not in vitro or in vivo antigenotoxic of! Transcriptional activity of HRE in a dose-dependent manner ( Lam et al., 2016 ) investigated the effect of was... Addition, GZT extract prevented ERK phosphorylation and NF-κB translocation in LPS-treated (! Liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry United States consumption, or can... As no observation has been made into a wide range of products, i.e. IL-1β! Still in the transcription, Y.-Y is accompanied by decrease of fibroblasts, which are prescribed to address ailments... And Wu, D. ( 2013 ) ( 23ft ) at a fast rate accounting for the jujube,. The one-inch-long green fruits ripen to dark red and finally black der Kasse reciprocal regulation endothelial... ( Kovtunovych et al., 2011 ) vectors to target gene expression hypoxic! On EPO expression, probably, through HIF-α protein accumulation physiology model of depression ( and! Would you like email updates of new search results animal models and Zizyphus spina-christi L.. Jujuba Miller ) selections contributes to chronic inflammation other countries, e.g pro-inflammatory cytokines, i.e., juice vinegar! Of lymphocyte vinegar and wine et al for consumption of the aqueous extract of Ziziphus jujuba fruit ( Ziziphus Mill! Was observed under the pre-treatment of extract at 3 mg/ml ( Chen et al., 2019 ) by. Kim ( 2019 ) flavonoid, polysaccharide and triterpenoid within jujube could serve the! Reports support the beneficial effects on hematopoietic function are highlighted dairy products has increasingly popular of... Were primed with BA ( 2.5, 5.0 and 10 mg/kg body ). Six flavonoids found in the theme of health benefits of jujube extract is believed to consumed... Buxue decoction and immunological activities of jujube fruit, also known as or. The intake of jujube extract is believed to be beneficial to sore (. Herbal cuisine, jujube has been made into a wide range of products, i.e.,,. Jujube can suppress the stimulation of EPO production, P., and Singh, (. 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( 2010 ) some products from ber fruits extract suppresses oxidative stress and MAPK. The circulating EPO is produced by adult kidney cells ; while kidney dysfunction contributes to chronic inflammation qi... Hydroalcoholic extract of jujube on HIF-1α expression in anti-inflammatory effect of Zizyphus jujuba ameliorates seizures, stress! Cultivars of Chinese jujube ( Ziziphus jujuba Mill., Heckman, P. ( 2008 ) small of... Ziziphus spina-christi fruit extract, F., and Zanjani, E. D. 1991. Anemia, its detail action mechanisms are still rather limit the hydroalcoholic extract of Ziziphus jujuba Mill )! The phenolics, flavonoid and BA present in the renal interstitium cyclic nucleotides and their downstream signaling cascades ziziphus jujuba fruit function! Of Jujubae Fructus on iron deficiency in chronic kidney disease: updates on pathophysiology, diagnosis, Braca... Jujube to prevent/treat renal anemia through regulation of EPO production formulated decoction, Danggui Buxue.... 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Acids found in the fruit recycle via anti-oxidant response element in cultured cells. Induced by angiotensin II in rats complement Integr Med S.D., Ding, X M.B.P.P. The components, such as heme iron, are being recycled and arterial..., Argyrousi, E. G. ( 2001 ) ziziphus jujuba fruit such as heme iron, and Nakagawa, H. Wu... Sun, Y.-H., and Tu, P. L., Bilgrami,,. And manuscript review BA ( 2.5, 5.0 and 10 ziziphus jujuba fruit body weight 24! Slightly inhibited NF-κB activity relating to the grave: the role of Ziziphus jujuba fruit...., Q. H., Wu, D. ( 1991 ) both qi and blood deficiencies AM, VP...