KW - planets and satellites: atmospheres, KW - planets and satellites: gaseous planets, UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84987875345&partnerID=8YFLogxK, UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84987875345&partnerID=8YFLogxK, Powered by Pure, Scopus & Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™ © 2021 Elsevier B.V, "We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content. Using 3D global circulation models of HD209458b including passive tracers, we show that, although Hot Jupiter atmospheres are stably stratified, they are strongly mixed by planetary scale circulation patterns. The cold trapping of cloud species below the photosphere naturally produces such a transition and predicts similar transitions for other condensates, including TiO. The radial-dependent positions of snowlines of abundant oxygen- and carbon-bearing molecules in protoplanetary discs will result in systematic radial variations in the carbon-to-oxygen (C/O) ratios in the gas and ice. In this paper, the authors discuss a unique system called TOI-1130, which contains both a hot Jupiter and a mini Neptune. Recent observations show that the Kepler light curves of some hot Jupiters are asymmetric: for the hottest planets, the light curve peaks before secondary eclipse, whereas for planets cooler than ∼1900 K, it peaks after secondary eclipse. The hot Jupiter, TOI-1130 c, has been confirmed by radial velocity measurements (see Figure 1) and is roughly 0.974 M Jup with an orbital period of 8.4 days. Having done a bit of research lately, I learnt that hot Jupiters are often victim to having their atmospheres gradually stripped away by their parent stars. F. Rodler, M. Kürster, J. R. Barnes, Detection of CO absorption in the atmosphere of the hot Jupiter HD 189733b, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 432, Issue 3, 01 July 2013, Pages 1980–1988, ... chemical composition, etc., from the difference spectrum. By comparing our models and the observations, we show that the cloud composition of hot Jupiters likely varies with equilibrium temperature. Dive into the research topics of 'TRANSITIONS in the CLOUD COMPOSITION of HOT JUPITERS'. We have observed another nearby sun-like star that also transits. 'Hot Jupiter' planet discovered 1,000 light years away that's 'on edge of destruction' The mysterious planet is about a billion years old and similar in size and composition to our own Jupiter. Moreover, they can only form in a disc which has fully inherited interstellar abundances, and where negligible chemistry has occurred. The accepted theory holds … Draft version August 28, 2014 Preprint typeset using LATEX style emulateapj v. 08/13/06 A PRECISE WATER ABUNDANCE MEASUREMENT FOR THE HOT JUPITER WASP-43b Laura Kreidberg1,12, Jacob L. Bean1,13, Jean-Michel D esert 2, Michael R. Line 3, Jonathan J. Fortney , Nikku Madhusudhan4, Kevin B. Stevenson1,14, Adam P. Showman5, David Charbonneau6, Peter R. McCullough7, Sara Recent observations show that the Kepler light curves of some hot Jupiters are asymmetric: for the hottest planets, the light curve peaks before secondary eclipse, whereas for planets cooler than ∼1900 K, it peaks after secondary eclipse. Assuming initial solar composition, this predicts the main element-bearing species at the temperatures of hot Jupiters to be, for example, H 2O and CO for oxygen, CO, CO 2 and CH 4 for carbon and TiO for titanium. The hot Jupiter, TOI-1130 c, has been confirmed by radial velocity measurements (see Figure 1) and is roughly 0.974 M Jup with an orbital period of 8.4 days. But its cloudless patches are just as interesting—and so unusual that the big ones get the special name "hot spots." Hence, carbon-rich planets are likely rare, unless efficient transport of hydrocarbon-rich ices via pebble drift to within the CH4 snowline is a common phenomenon. Instead, it looks like their formation histories could be playing an important role.” The clouds on these hot, Jupiter-like gas giants are nothing like those on Earth. We predict combinations of C/O ratios and elemental abundances that can constrain gas-giant planet formation locations relative to snowline positions, and that can provide insight into the disc chemical history. We find that hot Jupiters with C/O > 1 can only form between the CO2 and CH4 snowlines. The composition of Jupiter is similar to that of the Sun—mostly hydrogen and helium. Image Credit: ESA How’d they get there? title = "TRANSITIONS in the CLOUD COMPOSITION of HOT JUPITERS". For the cool planets the presence of an asymmetry in the Kepler light curve is a telltale sign of the cloud composition, because each cloud species can produce an offset only over a narrow range of effective temperatures. For the cool planets the presence of an asymmetry in the Kepler light curve is a telltale sign of the cloud composition, because each cloud species can produce an offset only over a narrow range of effective temperatures. Agreement NNX16AC86A, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Is ADS down? TRANSITIONS in the CLOUD COMPOSITION of HOT JUPITERS. Intensity of starlight is inversely proportionally to the square of the distance 20 These high temperatures of hot Jupiters can affect the composition of the clouds. This Hot-Jupiter, located in a star system 1400 light years from Earth in the direction of the Auriga constellation, was recently studied by a team of astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope. For the cool planets the presence of an asymmetry in the Kepler light curve is a telltale sign of the cloud composition, because each cloud species can produce an offset only over a narrow range of effective temperatures. Since then, the instrument has gotten looks at dozens of hot Jupiters, yielding insights about their composition … By measuring the amount of water in its atmosphere, we can estimate the amount of oxygen – a key component of water – inside Jupiter, a vital step in understanding the planet’s formation. The largest planet in the solar system acts like a giant magnet. note = "Publisher Copyright: {\textcopyright} 2016. We suggest that a transition occurs between silicate and manganese sulfide clouds at a temperature near 1600 K, analogous to the L/T transition on brown dwarfs. All rights reserved. Finding young members of this planet class could help answer key questions. This gives Jupiter the largest ocean in the solar system—an ocean made of hydrogen instead of water. © 2016. We demonstrate that the change from an optical light curve dominated by thermal emission to one dominated by scattering (reflection) naturally explains the observed trend from negative to positive offset. We predict that most hot Jupiters should have cloudy nightsides, that partial cloudiness should be common at the limb, and that the dayside hot spot should often be cloud-free. Jupiter has a cloud-top temperature of 130K while hot Jupiters' cloud-top temperatures can be up to 1300K 8. Density of a Hot Jupiter Last Thursday (February 1) in class, Professor Bailyn discussed a “Hot Jupiter” that is aligned in just the right way such that the planet periodically passes in front of the star (i.e. 'Hot Jupiter' planet discovered 1,000 light years away that's 'on edge of destruction' The mysterious planet is about a billion years old and similar in size and composition to our own Jupiter. AB - Over a large range of equilibrium temperatures, clouds shape the transmission spectrum of hot Jupiter atmospheres, yet their composition remains unknown. Jupiter is a planet known for clouds, from its distinctive orange and white stripes to the swirling vortex known as the Great Red Spot. The ceiling mass limit for a Hot Jupiter measure to the equivalent of 13.6 Jupiters. The hot Jupiter, TOI-1130 c, has been confirmed by radial velocity measurements (see Figure 1) and is roughly 0.974 M Jup. The amount of gas removed from the outermost layers depends on the planet's size, the gases forming the envelope, the orbital distance from the star, and the star's luminosity. Parmentier, Vivien ; Fortney, Jonathan J. From Wikipedia . In this paper, the authors discuss a unique system called TOI-1130 which contains both a hot Jupiter and a mini-Neptune. Copyright: The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative We suggest that a transition occurs between silicate and manganese sulfide clouds at a temperature near 1600 K, analogous to the L/T transition on brown dwarfs. The hot Jupiter WASP-148b is rather unusual, since it has a sibling planet, WASP-148c in a 35-day orbit (Hébrard et al. and Showman, {Adam P.} and Caroline Morley and Marley, {Mark S.}". Phase curves and secondary eclipses of gaseous exoplanets are diagnostic of atmospheric composition and meteorology, and the long observational baseline and high photometric precision from the Kepler mission make its data set well suited for exploring phase curve variability, which provides additional insights into atmospheric dynamics. Copyright: Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.". The American Astronomical Society. As found in previous work, as the C/O ratio exceeds the solar value, the mixing ratio of CH4 increases in the lower atmosphere, and those of C2H2 and HCN increase mainly in the upper atmosphere. (Nicolaus Copernicus University and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía).. ATMOSPHERE AND PLANETARY COMPOSITION Atmosphere: Jupiter is a gaseous planet; it does not have a solid surface like the Earth does (but probably has a solid, rocky core 10 to 15 times the mass of the Earth).When we look at Jupiter, we are seeing icy clouds of gases moving at high speeds in the atmosphere. With the exception of its solid core, Jupiter’s interior is probably well mixed, meaning that the composition of its outer atmosphere is likely a good indication of what’s deeper in the planet. We suggest that a transition occurs between silicate and manganese sulfide clouds at a temperature near 1600 K, analogous to the L/T transition on brown dwarfs. Jupiter-size exoplanets orbiting close to their stars have upended ideas about how giant planets form. By comparing our models and the observations, we show that the cloud composition of hot Jupiters likely varies with equilibrium temperature. We use the thermal structure from 3D global circulation models to determine the expected cloud distribution and Kepler light curves of hot Jupiters. Recent observations show that the Kepler light curves of some hot Jupiters are asymmetric: for the hottest planets, the light curve peaks before secondary eclipse, whereas for planets cooler than ∼1900 K, it peaks after secondary eclipse. Deep in the atmosphere, pressure and temperature increase, compressing the hydrogen gas into a liquid. We predict that most hot Jupiters should have cloudy nightsides, that partial cloudiness should be common at the limb, and that the dayside hot spot should often be cloud-free. We predict that most hot Jupiters should have cloudy nightsides, that partial cloudiness should be common at the limb, and that the dayside hot spot should often be cloud-free.". We calculate the molecular composition of hot Jupiter atmospheres using elemental abundances extracted from a chemical kinetics model of a disc midplane where we have varied the initial abundances and ionization rates. Notice, Smithsonian Terms of Jupiter's fast … But unlike the sun, it lacks the necessary amount to begin fusion , the process that fuels a star. Less is known about the Neptune, TOI-1130 b, since there are no radial velocity detections of it, but the … The newfound short-period planet is a hot gas giant with a mass of 0.7 times that of Jupiter and a radius of 1.1 Jovian radii. We use the thermal structure from 3D global circulation models to determine the expected cloud distribution and Kepler light curves of hot Jupiters. author = "Vivien Parmentier and Fortney, {Jonathan J.} Deep in the atmosphere, pressure and temperature increase, compressing the hydrogen gas into a liquid. Use, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. We calculate the molecular composition of hot Jupiter atmospheres using elemental abundances extracted from a chemical kinetics model of a disc mid-plane, where we have varied the initial abundances and ionization rates. Besides that, a N2 - Over a large range of equilibrium temperatures, clouds shape the transmission spectrum of hot Jupiter atmospheres, yet their composition remains unknown. We predict that most hot Jupiters should have cloudy nightsides, that partial cloudiness should be common at the limb, and that the dayside hot spot should often be cloud-free. Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.It is a gas giant with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two-and-a-half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. (or is it just me...), Smithsonian Privacy Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics; Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics. Jupiter's atmosphere is composed of about 90% hydrogen and 10 % helium. Observations of the hot Jupiter Kepler-76b span more … They are distinguished by two basic properties, their size and their orbit. Together they form a unique fingerprint. The mixing ratio of H2O correspondingly decreases. doi = "10.3847/0004-637X/828/1/22", https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/828/1/22. We provide a rough estimate of the effective vertical mixing coefficient in Hot Jupiter atmosphere which can be used in 1D models. A team of international researchers, led by astrophysicists from the University of Exeter, Columbia University and NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, used state-of-the-art modelling techniques to extensively study the atmosphere of a ‘hot Jupiter’ found 150 lightyears from Earth. : atmospheres, yet their composition remains unknown have observed another nearby star! 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